As February approaches, Marula trees are starting to produce fruit. During this period, we often notice a large influx of elephants into Londolozi (from the neighbouring Kruger National Park) in response to these fruits. Whilst out on drive or on walk, if you move upward toward high ground and scan the sandy crests, you will often be rewarded with seeing herds of elephants moving from one Marula to the next. Each Marula produces hundreds of sweet and highly nutritious fruits, which turn yellow when ripe and are often found on the ground. Elephants have evolved a strong affiliation with these fruits and pick them up off the ground or from the trees and feed on them with fondness. In fact, seldom do we see elephant dung without any Marula fruit inside it during February.

Marula Tree on the Open Areas - Rich Laburn

In late January, Marula trees often produce fruits which are relished by elephants who move into Londolozi in large numbers from the surrounding Kruger National Park.

The relationship between elephants and Marulas has existed for a very long time. Elephants do sometimes push over these trees to get to their roots or top leaves but they also facilitate the germination process of the seeds. So although they are responsible for destroying some individuals, they also help to grow them. In fact, studies have shown that Marula seeds which have passed through an elephant’s digestive system are more likely to germinate than those which have not. Furthermore, the seeds often germinate in the very compost heap in which they are deposited.

ElephantDusk

Elephants and Marulas have co-evolved for a long time and elephants also assist in the germination process of these trees.

Marulas are from the same family as the mango and when fermented, the fruits contain a large amount of alcohol. Humans have often capitalized on this. Local Shangaan people place these fruits into water and allow them to ferment for a few days to brew a cider and the fruit is used in the popular liqueur Amarula. For over a century there has been a wild and fanciful notion that elephants become intoxicated from Marula fruits. In fact, the French naturalist Delegorgue describes how in 1839 his Zulu guide mentioned how elephants showed incredibly strange behaviour after eating these fruits. He writes, “the elephant has in common with man a predilection for the gentle warming of the brain induced by fruit which has been fermented by action of the sun.”

Andrea-Campbell-Elephant-on-face

Although many similarities can be drawn from this behaviour to a late night college party, elephants being drunk is not likely one of them. Elephants would have to eat 1400 well fermented marulas to even begin to get drunk.

But there’s just one problem – elephants don’t often eat the fermented fruits on the ground, and even if they did, they certainly don’t eat enough of it. Hypothetically, if an elephant could get access to alcohol, it would take a lot to get it drunk. Steve Morris, a biologist from the University of Bristol, together with his co-authors, calculated that based on its body weight, it would take about half a gallon (1.9 litres) of ethanol to even get an elephant tipsy. Based on that, they then calculated that it would take up to 7.1 gallons (27 litres) of Marula juice to come up with that amount of alcohol. To produce a litre of marula juice, you would need about 200 marula fruits. Simply put, for an elephant to even start to get drunk, it would need to eat 1400 well fermented Marula fruits, which is not likely at all. Myths of drunken elephants will remain in African folklore. It’s a good story and a durable myth, but I’d suggest you don’t spend all of your time under a tree waiting for drunk elephants to pass.

Filed under Wildlife

6 Comments

on Elephants and Marulas

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Wendy Hawkins
Guest

Thank you Shaun! Don’t forget all the many feathered friends who also love the fruit of the Marula! Maybe you could do a blog on those beautiful Turaco’s, Green Pigeon & many more 🙂

Dave Mills
Guest

Very clever. And interesting. Thanks.

Sharon Blackburn
Guest

This post made me smile! Interesting and amusing!

Lea
Guest

Love this post Shaun. An amusing concept to see a drunken ellie. Loved the pic of the ellies in a pile. The most fantastic animal on earth. Thanks Shaun.

Gerard Gaynor
Guest

nice

Jill Larone
Guest

Great post Shaun. I have many fond memories of enjoying Amarula in my coffee during morning game drive at Londolozi — a great way to celebrate the sunrise! I loved the picture of the Elephants playing!

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